Jumat, 05 Februari 2016

Dutch East Indies

The Dutch East Indies (or Netherlands East IndiesDutchNederlands-IndiëIndonesianHindia Belanda) was a Dutch colony that became modern Indonesia following World War II. It was formed from the nationalised colonies of the Dutch East India Company, which came under the administration of the Dutch government in 1800.
During the 19th century, Dutch possessions and hegemony were expanded, reaching their greatest territorial extent in the early 20th century. This colony which later formed modern-day Indonesia was one of the most valuable European colonies under the Dutch Empire's rule,[3] and contributed to Dutch global prominence in spice and cash crop trade in the 19th to early 20th century.[4] The colonial social order was based on rigid racial and social structures with a Dutch elite living separate from but linked to their native subjects.[5] The term Indonesia came into use for the geographical location after 1880. In the early 20th century, local intellectuals began developing the concept of Indonesia as a nation state, and set the stage for an independence movement.[6]
Japan's World War II occupation dismantled much of the Dutch colonial state and economy. Following the Japanese surrender in August 1945, Indonesian nationalists declared independence which they fought to secure during the subsequent Indonesian National Revolution. The Netherlands formally recognised Indonesian sovereignty at the 1949Dutch–Indonesian Round Table Conference with the exception of the Netherlands New Guinea (Western New Guinea), which was ceded to Indonesia in 1963 under the provisions of the New York Agreement.


The word Indies comes from LatinIndus. The original name Dutch Indies (DutchNederlandsch-Indië) was translated by the English as the Dutch East Indies, to keep it distinct from the Dutch West Indies. The name Dutch Indies is recorded in the Dutch East India Company's documents of the early 1620s.[7]
Scholars writing in English use the terms IndiëIndies, the Dutch East Indies, the Netherlands Indies, and colonial Indonesia interchangeably.[8]


Company rule

The map of the world showing the Western colonial power possessions, the Dutch East Indies possessions can be seen in orange colour in theSoutheast Asia region.
Centuries before Europeans arrived, the Indonesian archipelago supported various states, including commercially oriented coastal trading states and inland agrarian states.[9] The first Europeans to arrive were the Portuguese in the late 15th century. Following disruption of Dutch access to spices in Europe,[10] the first Dutch expedition set sail for the East Indies in 1595 to access spices directly from Asia. When it made a 400% profit on its return, other Dutch expeditions soon followed. Recognising the potential of the East Indies trade, the Dutch government amalgamated the competing companies into the United East India Company (VOC).[10]
The VOC was granted a charter to wage war, build fortresses, and make treaties across Asia.[10] A capital was established in Batavia(now Jakarta), which became the centre of the VOC's Asian trading network.[11] To their original monopolies on nutmegpeppers,cloves and cinnamon, the company and later colonial administrations introduced non-indigenous cash crops like coffeeteacacao,tobaccorubbersugar and opium, and safeguarded their commercial interests by taking over surrounding territory.[11] Smuggling, the ongoing expense of war, corruption, and mismanagement led to bankruptcy by the end of the 18th century. The company was formally dissolved in 1800 and its colonial possessions in the Indonesian archipelago (including much of Java, parts of Sumatra, much of Maluku, and the hinterlands of ports such as MakasarManado, and Kupang) were nationalised under the Dutch Republic as the Dutch East Indies.[12]

Dutch conquests

From the arrival of the first Dutch ships in the late 16th century, to the declaration of independence in 1945, Dutch control over the Indonesian archipelago was always tenuous.[13] Although Java was dominated by the Dutch,[14] many areas remained independent throughout much of this time, including AcehBaliLombok and Borneo.[13] There were numerous wars and disturbances across the archipelago as various indigenous groups resisted efforts to establish a Dutch hegemony, which weakened Dutch control and tied up its military forces.[15] Piracy remained a problem until the mid-19th century.[13]Finally in the early 20th century, imperial dominance was extended across what was to become the territory of modern-day Indonesia.
The submission of Prince Diponegoro to General De Kock at the end of the Java War in 1830, paintingby Nicolaas Pieneman
In 1806, with the Netherlands under French domination, Napoleon appointed his brother Louis Bonaparte to the Dutch throne, which led to the 1808 appointment ofMarshall Herman Willem Daendels as Governor General of the Dutch East Indies.[16] In 1811, British forces occupied several Dutch East Indies ports including Java and Thomas Stamford Raffles became Lieutenant Governor. Dutch control was restored in 1816.[17] Under the 1824 Anglo-Dutch Treaty, the Dutch secured British settlements such as Bengkulu in Sumatra, in exchange for ceding control of their possessions in the Malay Peninsula and Dutch India. The resulting borders between British and Dutch possessions remain between Malaysia and Indonesia.
Since the establishment of the VOC in the 17th century, the expansion of Dutch territory had been a business matter. Graaf van den Bosch's Governor-generalship (1830–1835) confirmed profitability as the foundation of official policy, restricting its attention to Java, Sumatra and Bangka.[18] However, from about 1840, Dutch national expansionism saw them wage a series of wars to enlarge and consolidate their possessions in the outer islands.[19] Motivations included: the protection of areas already held; the intervention of Dutch officials ambitious for glory or promotion; and to establish Dutch claims throughout the archipelago to prevent intervention from other Western powers during the European push for colonial possessions.[18] As exploitation of Indonesian resources expanded off Java, most of the outer islands came under direct Dutch government control or influence.
The Dutch 7th Battalion advancing in Bali in 1846.
The Dutch subjugated the Minangkabau of Sumatra in the Padri War (1821–38)[20] and the Java War (1825–30) ended significant Javanese resistance.[21] The Banjarmasin War (1859–1863) in southeast Kalimantan resulted in the defeat of the Sultan.[22] After failed expeditions to conquer Bali in 1846 and 1848, an 1849 intervention brought northern Bali under Dutch control. The most prolonged military expedition was the Aceh War in which a Dutch invasion in 1873 was met with indigenous guerrilla resistance and ended with an Acehnese surrender in 1912.[21] Disturbances continued to break out on both Java and Sumatra during the remainder of the 19th century.[13] However, the island of Lombok came under Dutch control in 1894,[23] and Batak resistance in northern Sumatra was quashed in 1895.[21] Towards the end of the 19th century, the balance of military power shifted towards the industrialising Dutch and against pre-industrial independent indigenous Indonesian polities as the technology gap widened.[18] Military leaders and Dutch politicians believed they had a moral duty to free the native Indonesian peoples from indigenous rulers who were considered oppressive, backward, or disrespectful of international law.[24]
Although Indonesian rebellions broke out, direct colonial rule was extended throughout the rest of the archipelago from 1901 to 1910 and control taken from the remaining independent local rulers.[25] Southwestern Sulawesi was occupied in 1905–06, the island of Bali was subjugated with military conquests in 1906and 1908, as were the remaining independent kingdoms in Maluku, Sumatra, Kalimantan, and Nusa Tenggara.[21][24] Other rulers including the Sultans of Tidore in Maluku,Pontianak (Kalimantan), and Palembang in Sumatra, requested Dutch protection from independent neighbours thereby avoiding Dutch military conquest and were able to negotiate better conditions under colonial rule.[24] The Bird's Head Peninsula (Western New Guinea), was brought under Dutch administration in 1920. This final territorial range would form the territory of the Republic of Indonesia.

World War II and independence

The Netherlands, Britain and the United States tried to defend the colony from the Japanese as it moved south in late 1941 in search of Dutch oil.[26][27] On 10 January 1942, during the Dutch East Indies Campaign, Japanese forces invaded the Dutch East Indies as part of the Pacific War.[28] The rubber plantations and oil fields of the Dutch East Indies were considered crucial for the Japanese war effort.[citation needed] Allied forces were quickly overwhelmed by the Japanese and on 8 March 1942 the Royal Dutch East Indies Armysurrendered in Java.[29][30]
Fuelled by the Japanese Light of Asia war propaganda[31] and the Indonesian National Awakening, a vast majority of the indigenous Dutch East Indies population first welcomed the Japanese as liberators from the colonial Dutch empire, but this sentiment quickly changed as the occupation turned out to be far more oppressive and ruinous than the Dutch colonial government.[32][33] The Japanese occupation during World War II brought about the fall of the colonial state in Indonesia,[34] as the Japanese removed as much of the Dutch government structure as they could, replacing it with their own regime.[35] Although the top positions were held by the Japanese, the internment of all Dutch citizens meant that Indonesians filled many leadership and administrative positions. In contrast to Dutch repression of Indonesian nationalism, the Japanese allowed indigenous leaders to forge links amongst the masses, and they trained and armed the younger generations.[36]
According to a UN report, four million people died in Indonesia as a result of the Japanese occupation.[37] Following the Japanese surrender in August 1945, nationalist leadersSukarno and Mohammad Hatta declared Indonesian independence. A four and a half-year struggle followed as the Dutch tried to re-establish their colony; although Dutch forces re-occupied most of Indonesia's territory a guerilla struggle ensued, and the majority of Indonesians, and ultimately international opinion, favoured Indonesian independence. In December 1949, the Netherlands formally recognised Indonesian sovereignty with the exception of the Netherlands New Guinea (Western New Guinea). Sukarno's government campaigned for Indonesian control of the territory, and with pressure from the United States, the Netherlands agreed to the New York Agreement which ceded the territory to Indonesian administration in May 1963.

Economic history

Workers pose at the site of a railway tunnel under construction in the mountains, 1910.
The economic history of the colony was closely related to the economic health of the mother country.[38] Despite increasing returns from the Dutch system of land tax, Dutch finances had been severely affected by the cost of the Java War and the Padri War, and the Dutch loss of Belgium in 1830 brought the Netherlands to the brink of bankruptcy. In 1830, a new Governor-GeneralJohannes van den Bosch, was appointed to make the Indies pay their way through Dutch exploitation of its resources. With the Dutch achieving political domination throughout Java for the first time in 1830,[39] it was possible to introduce an agricultural policy of government-controlled forced cultivation. Termed cultuurstelsel (cultivation system) in Dutch and tanam paksa (forced plantation) in Indonesian, farmers were required to deliver, as a form of tax, fixed amounts of specified crops, such as sugar or coffee.[40] Much of Java became a Dutch plantation and revenue rose continually through the 19th century which were reinvested into the Netherlands to save it from bankruptcy.[13][40] Between 1830 and 1870, 1 billion guilders were taken from Indonesia, on average making 25 per cent of the annual Dutch Government budget.[41] The Cultivation System, however, brought much economic hardship to Javanese peasants, who suffered famine and epidemics in the 1840s.[13]
Map of the Dutch East Indies in 1818
Critical public opinion in the Netherlands led to much of the Cultivation System's excesses being eliminated under the agrarian reforms of the "Liberal Period". Dutch private capital flowed in after 1850, especially in tin mining and plantation estate agriculture. The Billiton Company's tin mines off the eastern Sumatra coast was financed by a syndicate of Dutch entrepreneurs, including the younger brother of King William III. Mining began in 1860. In 1863 Jacob Nienhuys obtained a concession from the Sultanate of Deli (East Sumatra) for a large tobacco estate (Deli Company.[42] From 1870, the Indies were opened up to private enterprise and Dutch businessmen set up large, profitable plantations. Sugar production doubled between 1870 and 1885; new crops such as tea and cinchona flourished, and rubber was introduced, leading to dramatic increases in Dutch profits. Changes were not limited to Java, or agriculture; oil from Sumatra and Kalimantan became a valuable resource for industrialising Europe. Dutch commercial interests expanded off Java to the outer islands with increasingly more territory coming under direct Dutch control or dominance in the latter half of the 19th century.[13] However, the resulting scarcity of land for rice production, combined with dramatically increasing populations, especially in Java, led to further hardships.[13]
Different flags in Dutch East India
The colonial exploitation of Indonesia's wealth contributed to the industrialisation of the Netherlands, while simultaneously laying the foundation for the industrialisation of Indonesia. The Dutch introduced coffee, tea, cacao, tobacco and rubber and large expanses of Java became plantations cultivated by Javanese peasants, collected by Chinese intermediaries, and sold on overseas markets by European merchants.[13] In the late 19th century economic growth was based on heavy world demand for tea, coffee, and cinchona. The government invested heavily in a railroad network (150 miles long in 1873, 1,200 in 1900), as well as telegraph lines, and entrepreneurs opened banks, shops and newspapers. The Dutch East Indies produced most of the world's supply of quinine and pepper, over a third of its rubber, a quarter of its coconut products, and a fifth of its tea, sugar, coffee, and oil. The profit from the Dutch East Indies made the Netherlands one of the world's most significant colonial powers.[13] The Koninklijke Paketvaart-Maatschappij shipping line supported the unification of the colonial economy and brought inter-island shipping through to Batavia, rather than through Singapore, thus focussing more economic activity on Java.[43]
The worldwide recession of the late 1880s and early 1890s saw the commodity prices on which the colony depended collapse. Journalists and civil servants observed that the majority of the Indies population were no better off than under the previous regulated Cultivation System economy and tens of thousands starved.[44] Commodity prices recovered from the recession, leading to increased investment in the colony. The sugar, tin, copra and coffee trade on which the colony had been built thrived, and rubber, tobacco, tea and oil also became principal exports.[45] Political reform increased the autonomy of the local colonial administration, moving away from central control from the Netherlands, whilst power was also diverged from the central Batavia government to more localised governing units.
The world economy recovered in the late 1890s and prosperity returned. Foreign investment, especially by the British, were encouraged. By 1900, foreign-held assets in the Netherlands Indies totalled about 750 million guilders ($300 million), mostly in Java.[46]
After 1900 upgrading the infrastructure of ports and roads was a high priority for the Dutch, with the goal of modernising the economy, facilitating commerce, and speeding up military movements. By 1950 Dutch engineers had built and upgraded a road network with 12,000 km of asphalted surface, 41,000 km of metalled road area and 16,000 km of gravel surfaces.[47] In addition the Dutch built, 7,500 kilometres (4,700 mi) of railways, bridges, irrigation systems covering 1.4 million hectares (5,400 sq mi) of rice fields, several harbours, and 140 public drinking water systems. Wim Ravesteijn has said that, "With these public works, Dutch engineers constructed the material base of the colonial and postcolonial Indonesian state."[48]

Social history

Volksraad members in 1918: D. Birnie (Dutch), Kan Hok Hoei (Chinese), R. Sastro Widjono and M.N. Dwidjo Sewojo (Javanese).
'Selamatan' feast in Buitenzorg, a common feast among JavaneseMuslims.
In 1898, the population of Java numbered 28 million with another 7 million on Indonesia's outer islands.[49] The first half of 20th century saw large-scale immigration of Dutch and other Europeans to the colony, where they worked in either the government or private sectors. By 1930, there were more than 240,000 people with European legal status in the colony, making up less than 0.5% of the total population.[50] Almost 75% of these Europeans were in fact native Eurasians known as Indo-Europeans.[51]
1930 census of the Dutch East Indies[52]
1Indigenous islanders (Pribumi)59,138,06797.4%
3Dutch people and Eurasians240,4170.4%
4Other foreign orientals115,5350.2%
As the Dutch secured the islands they eliminated slavery, widow burninghead-hunting, cannibalism, piracy, and internecine wars.[21] Railways, steamships, postal and telegraph services, and various government agencies all served to introduce a degree of new uniformity across the colony. Immigration within the archipelago—particularly by ethnic Chinese, Bataks, Javanese, and Bugis—increased dramatically.[53]
The Dutch colonialists formed a privileged upper social class of soldiers, administrators, managers, teachers and pioneers. They lived together with the "natives", but at the top of a rigid social and racial caste system.[54][55] The Dutch East Indies had two legal classes of citizens; European and indigenous. A third class, Foreign Easterners, was added in 1920.[56]
In 1901 the Dutch adopted what they called the Ethical Policy, under which the colonial government had a duty to further the welfare of the Indonesian people in health and education. Other new measures under the policy included irrigation programs, transmigration, communications, flood mitigation, industrialisation, and protection of native industry.[13] Industrialisation did not significantly affect the majority of Indonesians, and Indonesia remained an agricultural colony; by 1930, there were 17 cities with populations over 50,000 and their combined populations numbered 1.87 million of the colony's 60 million.[25]



Students of the School Tot Opleiding Van Indische Artsen(STOVIA) aka Sekolah Doctor Jawa.
The Dutch school system was extended to Indonesians with the most prestigious schools admitting Dutch children and those of the Indonesian upper class. A second tier of schooling was based on ethnicity with separate schools for Indonesians, Arabs, and Chinese being taught in Dutch and with a Dutch curriculum. Ordinary Indonesians were educated in Malay in Roman alphabet with "link" schools preparing bright Indonesian students for entry into the Dutch-language schools.[57] Vocational schools and programs were set up by the Indies government to train indigenous Indonesians for specific roles in the colonial economy. Chinese and Arabs, officially termed "foreign orientals", could not enrol in either the vocational schools or primary schools.[58]
Graduates of Dutch schools opened their own schools modelled on the Dutch school system, as did Christian missionaries, Theosophical Societies, and Indonesian cultural associations. This proliferation of schools was further boosted by new Muslim schools in the Western mould that also offered secular subjects.[57] According to the 1930 census, 6% of Indonesians were literate, however, this figure recognised only graduates from Western schools and those who could read and write in a language in the Roman alphabet. It did not include graduates of non-Western schools or those who could read but not write Arabic, Malay or Dutch, or those who could write in non-Roman alphabets such as BatakJavanese, Chinese, or Arabic.[57]
Dutch, Eurasian and Javanese professors of law at the opening of theRechts Hogeschool in 1924.
Some of higher education institutions were also established. In 1898 the Dutch East Indies government established a school to trainmedical doctors, named School tot Opleiding van Inlandsche Artsen (STOVIA). Many STOVIA graduates later played important roles inIndonesia's national movement toward independence as well in developing medical education in Indonesia, such as Dr. Wahidin Soedirohoesodo, who established the Budi Utomo political society. De Technische Hoogeschool te Bandung established in 1920 by the Dutch colonial administration to meet the needs of technical resources at its colony. One of Technische Hogeschool graduate is Sukarnowhom later would lead the Indonesian National Revolution. In 1924, the colonial government again decided to open a new tertiary-level educational facility, the Rechts Hogeschool (RHS), to train civilian officers and servants. In 1927, STOVIA's status was changed to that of a full tertiary-level institution and its name was changed to Geneeskundige Hogeschool (GHS). The GHS occupied the same main building and used the same teaching hospital as the current Faculty of Medicine of University of Indonesia. The old links between the Netherlands and Indonesia are still clearly visible in such technological areas as irrigation design. To this day, the ideas of Dutch colonial irrigation engineers continue to exert a strong influence over Indonesian design practices.[59] Moreover, the two highest internationally ranking universities of Indonesia, the University of Indonesia est.1898 and the Bandung Institute of Technology est.1920, were both founded during the colonial era.[60][61]
Education reforms, and modest political reform, resulted in a small elite of highly educated indigenous Indonesians, who promoted the idea of an independent and unified "Indonesia" that would bring together disparate indigenous groups of the Dutch East Indies. A period termed the Indonesian National Revival, the first half of the 20th century saw the nationalist movement develop strongly, but also face Dutch oppression.[13]

Law and administration

House of Resident (colonial administrator) in Surabaya.
Traditional rulers who survived displacement by the Dutch conquests were installed as regents and indigenous aristocracy became an indigenous civil service. While they lost real control, their wealth and splendour under the Dutch grew.[25] They were placed under a hierarchy of Dutch officials; the Residents, the Assistant Residents, and District Officers called Controlers. This indirect rule did not disturb the peasantry and was cost-effective for the Dutch; in 1900, only 250 European and 1,500 indigenous civil servants, and 16,000 Dutch officers and men and 26,000 hired native troops, were required to rule 35 million colonial subjects.[62] From 1910, the Dutch created the most centralised state power in Southeast Asia.[21]
Since the VOC era, the highest Dutch authority in the colony resided with the 'Office of the Governor-General'. During the Dutch East Indies era the Governor-General functioned as chief executive president of colonial government and served as commander-in-chief of the colonial (KNIL) army. Until 1903 all government officials and organisations were formal agents of the Governor-General and were entirely dependent on the central administration of the 'Office of the Governor-General' for their budgets.[63] Until 1815 the Governor-General had the absolute right to ban, censor or restrict any publication in the colony. The so-called Exorbitant powers of the Governor-General allowed him to exile anyone regarded as subversive and dangerous to peace and order, without involving any Court of Law.[64]
Governor-General's palace in Batavia (1880-1900).
Until 1848 the Governor-General was directly appointed by the Dutch monarch, and in later years via the Crown and on advice of the Dutch metropolitan cabinet. During two periods (1815–1835 and 1854–1925) the Governor-General ruled jointly with an advisory board called the Raad van Indie (Indies Council). Colonial policy and strategy were the responsibility of the Ministry of Colonies based in The Hague. From 1815 to 1848 the Ministry was under direct authority of the Dutch King. In the 20th century the colony gradually developed as a state distinct from the Dutch metropole with treasury separated in 1903, public loans being contracted by the colony from 1913, and quasi diplomatic ties were established with Arabia to manage the Haji pilgrimage from the Dutch East Indies. In 1922 the colony came on equal footing with the Netherlands in the Dutch constitution, while remaining under the Ministry of Colonies.[65]
Opening of the Volksraad by Governor-General count of Limburg-Stirum, Batavia 18 May 1918.
A People's Council called the Volksraad for the Dutch East Indies commenced in 1918. The Volksraad was limited to an advisory role and only a small portion of the indigenous population were able to vote for its members. The Council comprised 30 indigenous members, 25 European and 5 from Chinese and other populations, and was reconstituted every four years. In 1925 the Volksraad was made a semilegislative body; although decisions were still made by the Dutch government, the governor-general was expected to consult the Volksraad on major issues. The Volksraad was dissolved in 1942 during the Japanese occupation.[66]
Supreme Court Building, Batavia.
The Dutch government adapted the Dutch codes of law in its colony. The highest court of law, the Supreme Court in Batavia, dealt with appeals and monitored judges and courts throughout the colony. Six Councils of Justice (Raad van Justitie) dealt mostly with crime committed by people in the European legal class[67] and only indirectly with the indigenous population. The Land Councils(Landraden) dealt with civil matters and less serious offences like estate divorces, and matrimonial disputes. The indigenous population was subject to their respective adat law and to indigenous regents and district courts, unless cases were escalated before Dutch judges.[68][69] Following Indonesian independence, the Dutch legal system was adopted and gradually a national legal system based on Indonesian precepts of law and justice was established.[70]
By 1920 the Dutch had established 350 prisons throughout the colony. The Meester Cornelis prison in Batavia incarcerated the most unruly inmates. In Sawah Loento prison on Sumatra prisoners had to perform manual labour in the coal mines. Separate prisons were built for juveniles (West Java) and for women. In the female Boeloe prison in Semarang inmates had the opportunity to learn a profession during their detention, such as sewing, weaving and making batik. This training was held in high esteem and helped re-socialise women once they were outside the correctional facility.[68][71] In response to the communist uprising of 1926 the prison camp Boven-Digoel was established in New Guinea. As of 1927 political prisoners, including indigenous Indonesians espousing Indonesian independence, were 'exiled' to the outer islands.[72]
Politically, the highly centralised power structure, including the exorbitant powers of exile and censorship,[73] established by the Dutch administration was carried over into the new Indonesian republic.[21]

Administrative divisions

The Dutch East Indies was divided into three Gouvernementen, Groot Oost, Borneo and Sumatra, and three provincies in Java. Provincies and Gouvernementen were both divided to Residencies but while the Residencies under Provincies were divided again to regentschapen, Residencies under Gouvermenten were divided to Afdeelingen first before being divided to regentschapen[74] In 1942, the divisions were


Modern areaPrimary resource(s)
Dutch nameLocal nameCurrent English name
Residentie Atjeh en OnderhoorighedenAcehResidency of Aceh and Dependencies100306255392.23Aceh, consisting of the divisions (afdeeling) of Groot-AtjehNordkust van Atjeh,Oostkust van AtjehGajo en AlaslandenPidie and Westkust van Atjehopiumgold,coffee
Residentie TapanoeliTapanuliResidency of Tapanuli104258339076.87western part of North Sumatra, consisting of the divisions (afdeeling) of Sibolga en OmstrekenNiasBataklanden and Padang Sidempoeancamphor
Residentie Oostkust van SumatraSumatra TimurResidency of Sumatra's East Coast169320094583.25eastern part of North Sumatra and northern part of Riau, consisting of the divisions (afdeeling) of LangkatDeli en SerdangAsahanSimaloengoen en KarolandenSiakand Bengkalis; and with the municipalities (stadsgemeente) of MedanBindjaiTebing TinggiTandjoeng Balai and Pematang Siantartobacco
Residentie Sumatra's WestkustSumatra BaratResidency of Sumatra's West Coast191029849778.10West Sumatra including Mentawai Islands, consisting of the divisions (afdeeling) ofPadangPadangsche BovenlandenAgamSolokLimapoeloe Koto and Zuid Benedenlanden; and with the municipalities (stadsgemeente) of PadangBukittinggiand Sawahloentocoalblack peppersalt
Residentie Riouw en OnderhoorighedenRiauResidency of Riau and Dependencies29822531668.44southern part of Riau and Riau Islands, consisting of the divisions (afdeeling) ofIndragiri and Tandjoengpinangoilfish
Residentie DjambiJambiResidency of Jambi24527244923.76Jambi, consisting of the divisions (afdeeling) of Djambiblack pepper
Residentie BengkoelenBengkuluResidency of Bengkulu32312326249.39Bengkulu, consisting of the divisions (afdeeling) of Bengkoelenblack pepper
Residentie PalembangPalembangResidency of Palembang109872586355.65South Sumatra, consist of the divisions (afdeeling) of Palembang Bovenlanden,Palembang Benedenlanden and Ogan en Komering-oeloe; and with the municipalities (stadsgemeente) of Palembangblack pepper
Residentie Bangka en OnderhoorighedenBangkaResidency of Bangka and Dependencies27879216774.70Bangka and Belitung Islands, consisting of the divisions (afdeeling) of Bangka andBillitontin
Residentie Lampongsche DistrictenLampungResidency of Lampung District36156328783.74Lampung, consisting of the divisions (afdeeling) of Teloekbetoengblack pepper


Java was also divided to three provinces which overlap with Pre-2000 boundary of java without Surakarta which in 1942 along with Yogyakarta were not included in any provinces of Java, but considered Vorstenlanden van Java (Princely States of Java)
West Java
Modern areaPrimary resource(s)
Dutch nameLocal nameCurrent English name
Residentie BantamBantenResidency of Banten1028628n/aBanten consisting of the regencies (regentschap) of SerangLebak and Pandeglangblack pepper,goldpoultry
Residentie BataviaBetawiResidency of Batavia2637035n/aJakarta and surroundings, consisting of the regencies (regentschap) of BataviaMeester-Cornelisand Krawang; with municipality (stadsgemeente) of Bataviaricecoffee
Residentie BuitenzorgBogorResidency of Buitenzorg2212997n/aBogor and surroundings, consist of the regencies (regentschap) of BuitenzorgSoekaboemi andTjiandjoer; with municipality (stadsgemeente) of Buitenzorg and Soekaboemicoffee
Residentie PreangerPrianganResidency of Preanger3448796n/aBandung and surroundings, consisting of the regencies (regentschap) of BandoengSoemedang,TasikmalajaTjiamis and Garoet; with municipality (stadsgemeente) of Bandoengteacoffee,quinine
Residentie CheribonCirebonResidency of Cirebon2069690n/aCirebon and surroundings, consisting of regencies (regentschap) of CheribonKoeningan,Indramajoe and Madjalengka; and with the municipalities (stadsgemeente) of Cheribonblack pepper,fish
Midden Java[edit]
Modern areaPrimary resource(s)
Dutch nameLocal nameCurrent English name
Residentie PekalonganPekalonganResidency of Pekalongan2640124n/aPekalonganTegal and surroundings, consisting of regencies (regentschap) of Pekalongan,BatangPemalangTegal and Brebes; and with the municipalities(stadsgemeente) ofPekalongan and Tegalfishindigo,ricesugar
Residentie BanjoemasBanyumasResidency of Banyumas2474447n/aBanyumasPurwokerto and surroundings, consist of the regencies (regentschap) ofBanjoemasPoerwokertoPoerbolinggoTjilatjapKaranganjar and Bandjarnegaraoil
Residentie KedoeKeduResidency of Kedu2129894n/aMagelang and surroundings, consisting of the regencies (regentschap) of Magelang,WonosoboTemanggoengPoerworedjoKoetoardjo and Keboemen; and with the municipality (stadsgemeente) of Magelangtobacco
Residentie SemarangSemarangResidency of Semarang2020684n/aSemarang and surroundings, consisting of the regencies (regentschap) of SemarangKendal,Demak and Grobogan; and with the municipalities (stadsgemeente) of Semarang andSalatigatimber,indigo,kapok
Residentie Djepara-RembangJepara-RembangResidency of Jepara-Rembang1876480n/aJeparaRembang and surroundings, consisting of regencies (regentschap) of PatiDjepara,RembangBlora and Koedoestimberrice,cotton
Oost Java[edit]
Modern areaPrimary resource(s)
Dutch nameLocal nameCurrent English name
Residentie MadioenMadiunResidency of Madiun1909801n/aMadiun and surroundings, consisting of the regencies (regentschap) of MadioenMagetan,NgawiPonorogo and Patjitan; and with the municipality (stadsgemeente) of Madioensugar
Residentie BodjonegoroBojonegoroResidency of Bojonegoro1986129n/aBojonegoro and surroundings, consisting of the regencies (regentschap) of Bodjonegoro,ToebanGrisse and Lamonganfishtimber
Residentie KediriKediriResidency of Kediri2469955n/aKediri and surroundings, consisting of the regencies (regentschap) of KediriNgandjoekBlitar,Toeloengagoeng and Trenggalek; and with the municipalities (stadsgemeente) of Kediri andBlitartobacco
Residentie SoerabajaSurabayaResidency of Surabaya1902953n/aSurabaya and surroundings, consisting of the regencies (regentschap) of SoerabajaSidoardjo,Modjokerto and Djombang; and with the municipalities (stadsgemeente) of Soerabaja andModjokertofish
Residentie MalangMalangResidency of Malang1713536n/aMalang and surroundings, consisting of the regencies (regentschap) of MalangPasoeroean andBangil; with municipality (stadsgemeente) of Malang and Pasoeroeanfruit
Residentie ProbolinggoProbolinggoResidency of Probolinggo1027569n/aProbolinggo and surroundings, consisting of the regencies (regentschap) of Probolinggo,Kraksaan and Loemadjang; and with the municipalities (stadsgemeente) of Probolinggosulphur
Residentie BesoekiBesukiResidency of Besuki2083309n/aBanyuwangi and surroundings, consisting of the regencies (regentschap) of Bondowoso,PanaroekanDjember and Banjoewangitobacco
Residentie MadoeraMaduraResidency of Madura1962462n/aMadura, consisting of the regencies (regentschap) of BangkalanSampangPamekasan andSoemenepsalt
Modern areaPrimary resource(s)
Dutch nameLocal nameCurrent English name
Residentie JogjakartaYogyakartaResidency of Yogyakarta1559027n/aYogyakarta, consisting of the regencies (regentschap) of AdikartoPakoealamanKoelon-ProgoJogjakartaBantoel and Goenoeng-Kidultobacco
Residentie SoerakartaSurakartaResidency of Surakarta2564848n/aSurakarta, consisting of the regencies (regentschap) of SragenSoerakartaKota MangkoenagaranKlatenBojolali and Wonogiritobacco,sugar


In 1938 both of these Residenties were united were again united in a Gouvernement of Borneo with its capital at Banjarmasin.
Modern areaPrimary resource(s)
Dutch nameLocal nameCurrent English name
Residentie Westerafdeeling van BorneoKalimantan BaratResidency of Western Kalimantan802447n/aWest Kalimantan, consisting of the Afdeelingen of SingkawangPontianakKetapang andSintanggold
Residentie Zuider en Oosterafdeeling van BorneoKalimantan Selatan dan TimurResidency of South and East Kalimantan1366214n/aCentral KalimantanSouth KalimantanEast Kalimantan and North Kalimantan, consisting of the afdeelingen of Koeala KapoeasBandjermasinHoeloe SoengeiSamarinda andBoeloengan en Berau; with the municipalities (stadsgemeente) of Bandjermasindiamond,oilblack pepper,timber

Groote Oost[edit]

The Gouvernement van Groote Oost was a gouvernement of the Dutch East Indies created in 1938. It comprised all the islands to the east of Borneo and Java.
Lesser Sunda Islands[edit]
Modern areaPrimary resource(s)
Dutch nameLocal nameCurrent English name
Residentie Bali en LombokBali dan LombokResidency of Bali and Lombok1802683n/aBali and Lombok, consisting of the afdeelinen) of Bali and Lombokrice
Residentie Timor en OnderhoorighedenTimorResidency of Timor and Dependencies1657376n/aWest Nusa Tenggara East of Lombok and East Nusa Tenggara, consisting of the divisions (afdeeling) of SoembawaSoembaFlores and Timor en eilandensandalwood
Modern areaPrimary resource(s)
Dutch nameLocal nameCurrent English name
Residentie Celebes en OnderhoorighedenSulawesiResidency of Celebes and Dependencies3093251n/aSouth SulawesiWest Sulawesi and Southeast Sulawesi, consisting of the afdeelingen of Bonthain, MakassarBonePare-pareMandar, and LoewoeBoetoeng en Laiwoei and with the municipalities (stadsgemeente) of Makassarfishcotton,gold
Residentie ManadoManadoResidency of Manado1138665n/aCentral SulawesiGorontalo and North Sulawesi, consisting of the afdeelingen of Poso,DonggalaGorontalo, and Manado with the municipalities (stadsgemeente) of Manadofish
Maluku and Papua[edit]
In 1922 with the dissolution of Residentie Ternate to Residentie Amboina, Residentie Amboina was renamed to Residentie Molukken. In 1935 the Residentie was renamed to Gouvernement Molukken until the creation of Gouvernement Groot Oost in 1938, in which Gouvernement Molukken became residencie again.
Modern areaPrimary resource(s)
Dutch nameLocal nameCurrent English name
Afdeeling TernateMalukuAfdeeling of Ternate560013n/aNorth Malukuclovenutmegmace
Afdeeling AmboinaMalukuAfeedling of Amboina560013n/aMalukuclovenutmegmace
Afdeeling Nieuw-GuineaPapuaAfdeeling of New Guinea333387n/aWest Papua and Papuatimber

Armed forces[edit]

Decorated indigenous KNIL soldiers, 1927.
The Royal Dutch East Indies Army (KNIL) and the Royal Netherlands East Indies Army Air Force (ML-KNIL) were established in 1830 and 1915 respectively. Naval forces of the Royal Netherlands Navy were based in Surabaya, but were never part of the KNIL. The KNIL was a separate branch of the Royal Netherlands Army, commanded by the Governor-General and funded by the colonial budget. The KNIL was not allowed to recruit Dutch conscripts and had the nature of a 'Foreign Legion' recruiting not only Dutch volunteers, but many other European nationalities (especially German, Belgian and Swiss mercenaries).[75] While most officers were Europeans, the majority of soldiers were indigenous Indonesians, the largest contingent of which were Javanese and Sundanese.[76]
Dutch policy before the 1870s was to take full charge of strategic points and work out treaties with the local leaders elsewhere so they would remain in control and co-operate. The policy failed in Aceh, in northern Sumatra, where the sultan tolerated pirates who raided commerce in the Strait of Malacca. Britain was a protector of Aceh and it gave the Netherlands permission to eradicate the pirates. The campaign quickly drove out the sultan but across Aceh numerous local Muslim leaders mobilised and fought the Dutch in four decades of very expensive guerrilla war, with high levels of atrocities on both sides.[77]
Aceh War (1873–1914) between the Netherlands and the Aceh Sultanate.
Colonial military authorities tried to forestall a war against the population by means of a ‘strategy of awe’. When a guerrilla war did take place the Dutch used either a slow, violent occupation or a campaign of destruction.[78] By 1900 the archipelago was considered "pacified" and the KNIL was mainly involved with military police tasks. The nature of the KNIL changed in 1917 when the colonial government introduced obligatory military service for all male conscripts in the European legal class[79] and in 1922 a supplemental legal enactment introduced the creation of a ‘Home guard’ (Dutch: Landstorm) for European conscripts older than 32.[80] Petitions by Indonesian nationalists to establish military service for indigenous people were rejected. In July 1941 the Volksraad passed law creating a native militia of 18,000 by a majority of 43 to 4, with only the moderate Great Indonesia Party objecting. After the declaration of war with Japan, over 100,000 natives volunteered.[81] The KNIL hastily and inadequately attempted to transform into modern military force able to protect the Dutch East Indies from Imperial Japanese invasion. On the eve of the Japanese invasion in December 1941, Dutch regular troops in the East Indies comprised about 1,000 officers and 34,000 men, of whom 28,000 were indigenous. During the Dutch East Indies campaign of 1941–42 the KNIL and the Allied forces were quickly defeated.[82] All European soldiers, which in practice included all able bodied Indo-European males were interned by the Japanese as POW's. 25% of the POW's did not survive their internment.
Following World War II, a reconstituted KNIL joined with Dutch Army troops to re-establish colonial "law and order". Despite two successful military campaigns in 1947 and 1948, Dutch efforts to re-establish their colony failed and the Netherlands recognised Indonesian sovereignty in December 1949.[83] The KNIL was disbanded by 26 July 1950 with its indigenous personnel being given the option of demobilising or joining the Indonesian military.[84] At the time of disbandment the KNIL numbered 65,000, of whom 26,000 were incorporated into the new Indonesian Army. The remainder were either demobilised or transferred to the Netherlands Army.[85] Key officers in the Indonesian National Armed Forces that were former KNIL soldiers include: Suharto second president of Indonesia, Nasution supreme commander of the Indonesian army and Alexander Evert Kawilarangfounder of the elite special forces Kopassus.


Language and literature[edit]

Perhimpunan Pelajar-Pelajar Indonesia (Indonesian Students Union) delegates in Youth Pledge, an important event where Indonesian language was decided to be the national language. 1928
Across the archipelago, hundreds of native languages are used, and Malay or Portuguese Creole, the existing languages of trade were adopted. Prior to 1870, when Dutch colonial influence was largely restricted to Java, Malay was used in government schools and training programs such that graduates could communicate with groups from other regions who immigrated to Java.[86] The colonial government sought to standardise Malay based on the version from Riau and Malacca, and dictionaries were commissioned for governmental communication and schools for indigenous peoples.[87] In the early 20th century, Indonesia's independence leaders adopted a form of Malay from Riau, and called it Indonesian. In the latter half of the 19th century, the rest of the archipelago, in which hundreds of language groups were used, was brought under Dutch control. In extending the native education program to these areas, the government stipulated this "standard Malay" as the language of the colony.[88]
Dutch was not made the official language of the colony and was not widely used by the indigenous Indonesian population.[89] The majority of legally acknowledged Dutchmen were bi-lingual Indo Eurasians.[90] Dutch was only used by a limited educated elite, and in 1942, around two percent of the total population in the Dutch East Indies spoke Dutch including over 1 million indigenous Indonesians.[91] A number of Dutch loan words are used in present-day Indonesian, particularly technical terms (see List of Dutch loan words in Indonesian). These words generally had no alternative in Malay and were adopted into the Indonesian vocabulary giving a linguistic insight into which concepts are part of the Dutch colonial heritage. Hendrik Maier of the University of California says that about a fifth of contemporary Indonesian language can be traced to Dutch.[92]
Dutch language literature has been inspired by both colonial and post-colonial Indies from the Dutch Golden Age to the present day. It includes Dutch, Indo-European and Indonesian authors. Its subject matter thematically revolves around the Dutch colonial era, but also includes postcolonial discourse. Masterpieces of this genre include Multatuli'sMax Havelaar: Or The Coffee Auctions of the Dutch Trading CompanyLouis Couperus's Hidden ForceE. du Perron's Country of Origin, and Maria Dermoût's The Ten Thousand Things.[93][94]
Most Dutch literature was written by Dutch and Indo-European authors, however, in the first half of the 20th century under the Ethical Policy, indigenous Indonesian authors and intellectuals came to the Netherlands to study and work. They wrote Dutch language literary works and published literature in literary reviews such as Het GetijDe GemeenschapLinks Richten and Forum. By exploring new literary themes and focusing on indigenous protagonists, they drew attention to indigenous culture and the indigenous plight. Examples include the Javanese prince and poet Noto Soeroto, a writer and journalist, and the Dutch language writings of Soewarsih DjojopoespitoChairil AnwarKartini,Sutan Sjahrir and Sukarno.[95] Much of the postcolonial discourse in Dutch Indies literature has been written by Indo-European authors led by the "avant garde visionary" Tjalie Robinson, who is the best read Dutch author in contemporary Indonesia[96] and second generation Indo-European immigrants like Marion Bloem.

Visual art[edit]

The romantic depiction of De Grote Postweg near Buitenzorg.
The natural beauty of East Indies has inspired the works of artists and painters, that mostly capture the romantic scenes of colonial Indies. The term Mooi Indie (Dutch for "Beautiful Indies") was originally coined as the title of 11 reproductions of Du Chattel's watercolor paintings which depicted the scene of East Indies published in Amsterdam in 1930. The term became famous in 1939 after S. Sudjojono used it to mock the painters that merely depict all pretty things about Indies.[97] Mooi Indie later would identified as the genre of painting that occurred during the colonial East Indies that capture the romantic depictions of the Indies as the main themes; mostly natural scenes of mountains, volcanos, rice paddies, river valleys, villages, with scenes of native servants, nobles, and sometimes bare-chested native women. Some of the notable Mooi Indie painters are European artists: F.J. du Chattel, Manus Bauer, Nieuwkamp, Isaac Israel, PAJ Moojen, Carel Dake and Romualdo Locatelli; East Indies-born Dutch painters: Henry van Velthuijzen, Charles Sayers, Ernest Dezentje, Leonard Eland and Jan Frank; Native painters: Raden Saleh, Mas Pirngadi, Abdullah Surisubroto, Wakidi, Basuki Abdullah, Mas Soeryo Soebanto and Henk Ngantunk; and also Chinese painters: Lee Man Fong, Oei Tiang Oen and Biau Tik Kwie. These painters usually exhibit their works in art galleries such as Bataviasche Kuntkringgebouw, Theosofie Vereeniging, Kunstzaal Kolff & Co and Hotel Des Indes.

Theatre and film[edit]

Cinema Bioscoop Mimosa in Batu,Java dated 1941.
A total of 112 fictional films are known to have been produced in the Dutch East Indies between 1926 and the colony's dissolution in 1949. The earliest motion pictures, imported from abroad, were shown in late 1900,[98] and by the early 1920s imported serials and fictional films were being shown, often with localised names.[99] Dutch companies were also producing documentary films about the Indies to be shown in the Netherlands.[100] The first locally produced film, Loetoeng Kasaroeng, was directed by L. Heuveldorp and released on 31 December 1926.[101] Between 1926 and 1933 numerous other local productions were released. During the mid-1930s, production dropped as a result of the Great Depression.[102] The rate of production declined again after the Japanese occupation beginning in early 1942, closing all but one film studio.[103] The majority of films produced during the occupation were Japanese propaganda shorts.[104] Following theProclamation of Indonesian Independence in 1945 and during the ensuing revolution several films were made, by both pro-Dutch and pro-Indonesian backers.[105][106]
Generally films produced in the Indies dealt with traditional stories or were adapted from existing works.[107] The early films were silent, with Karnadi Anemer Bangkong (Karnadi the Frog Contractor; 1930) generally considered the first talkie;[108] later films would be in Dutch, Malay, or an indigenous language. All were black-and-white. The American visual anthropologist Karl G. Heider writes that all films from before 1950 are lost.[109] However, JB Kristanto's Katalog Film Indonesia (Indonesian Film Catalogue) records several as having survived at Sinematek Indonesia's archives, and Biran writes that several Japanese propaganda films have survived at the Netherlands Government Information Service.[110]
Theatre plays by playwrights such as Victor Ido (1869–1948) were performed at the Schouwburg Weltevreden, now known as Gedung Kesenian Jakarta. A less elite form of theatre, popular with both European and indigenous people, were the travelling Indo theatre shows known as Komedie Stamboel, made popular by Auguste Mahieu (1865–1903).


Museum and lab of the Buitenzorg Plantentuin.
The rich nature and culture of the Dutch East Indies attracted European intellectuals, scientists and researchers. Some notable scientists that conducted most of their important research in the East Indies archipelago are TeijsmannJunghuhnEijkmanDubois and Wallace. Many important art, culture and science institutions were established in Dutch East Indies. For example, the Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen, (Royal Batavian Society of Arts and Sciences), the predecessor of the National Museum of Indonesia, was established in 1778 with the aim to promote research and publish findings in the field of arts and sciences, especially history,archaeologyethnography and physics. The Bogor Botanical Gardens with Herbarium Bogoriense and Museum Zoologicum Bogoriensewas a major centre for botanical research established in 1817, with the aim to study the flora and fauna of the archipelago.
Java Man was discovered by Eugène Dubois in 1891. Komodo dragon was first described by Peter Ouwens in 1912, after an aeroplane crash accident in 1911 and rumours about living dinosaurs in Komodo Island in 1910. Vitamin B1 and its relation to beriberi disease was discovered by Eijkman during his work in the Indies.


See also: Indonesian cuisine
Dutch family enjoying a largeRijsttafel dinner, 1936.
The Dutch colonial families through their domestic helps and cooks were exposed to Indonesian cuisine, as the result they have developed a taste for native tropical spices and dishes. A notable Dutch East Indies colonial dish is rijsttafel, the rice table that consists of 7 to 40 popular dishes from across the colony. More an extravagant banquet than a dish, the Dutch colonials introduced the rice table not only so they could enjoy a wide array of dishes at a single setting but also to impress visitors with the exotic abundance of their colony.[111]
Through colonialism the Dutch introduced European dishes such as breadcheese, barbecued steak and pancake. As the producer of cash crops; coffee and tea were also popular in the colonial East Indies. Bread, butter and margarine, sandwiches filled with ham, cheese or fruit jam, poffertjespannekoek and Dutch cheeses were commonly consumed by colonial Dutch and Indos during the colonial era. Some of the native upperclass ningrat (nobles) and a few educated native were exposed to European cuisine, and it was held with high esteem as the cuisine of upperclass elite of Dutch East Indies society. This led to the adoption and fusion of European cuisine into Indonesian cuisine. Some dishes which were created during the colonial era are Dutch influenced: they include selat solo (solo salad), bistik jawa (Javanese beef steak), semur (from Dutch smoor), sayur kacang merah (brenebon) and sop buntut. Cakes and cookies also can trace their origin to Dutch influences; such as kue bolu (tart), pandan cake, lapis legit (spekkoek), spiku (lapis Surabaya), klappertaart (coconut tart), and kaasstengels(cheese cookies). Kue cubit commonly found in front of schools and marketplaces are believed to be derived from poffertjes.[112]


The 16th and 17th century arrival of European powers in Indonesia introduced masonry construction to Indonesia where previously timber and its by-products had been almost exclusively used. In the 17th and 18th centuries, Batavia was a fortified brick and masonry city.[113] For almost two centuries, the colonialists did little to adapt their European architectural habits to the tropical climate.[114] They built row houses which were poorly ventilated with small windows, which was thought as protection against tropical diseases coming from tropical air.[114] Years later the Dutch learnt to adapt their architectural styles with local building features (long eaves, verandahsporticos, large windows and ventilation openings),[115] and the 18th century Dutch Indies country houses was one of the first colonial buildings to incorporate Indonesian architectural elements and adapt to the climate, the known as Indies Style.[116]
Ceremonial Hall, Bandung Institute of TechnologyBandung, by architect Henri Maclaine-Pont
From the end of the 19th century, significant improvements to technology, communications and transportation brought new wealth to Java. Modernistic buildings, including train stations, business hotels, factories and office blocks, hospitals and education institutions, were influenced by international styles. The early 20th century trend was for modernist influences—such as art-deco—being expressed in essentially European buildings with Indonesian trim. Practical responses to the environment carried over from the earlier Indies Style, included overhanging eaves, larger windows and ventilation in the walls, which gave birth to the New Indies Style.[117] The largest stock of colonial era buildings are in the large cities of Java, such as Bandung, JakartaSemarang, and Surabaya. Notable architects and planners include Albert AalbersThomas KarstenHenri Maclaine Pont, J. Gerber and C.P.W. Schoemaker.[118] In the first three decades of the 20th century, the Department of Public Works funded major public buildings and introduced a town planning program under which the main towns and cities in Java and Sumatra were rebuilt and extended.[119]
A lack of development in the Great Depression, the turmoil of the Second World War and the Indonesia's independence struggle of the 1940s, and economic stagnation during the politically turbulent 1950s and 60s, meant that much colonial architecture has been preserved through to recent decades.[120] Colonial homes were almost always the preserve of the wealthy Dutch, Indonesian and Chinese elites, however the styles were often rich and creative combinations of two cultures, so much so that the homes remain sought after into the 21st century.[116] Native architecture was arguably more influenced by the new European ideas than colonial architecture was influenced by Indonesian styles; and these Western elements continue to be a dominant influence on Indonesia's built environment today.

Colonial heritage in the Netherlands[edit]

Dutch imperial imagery representing the Dutch East Indies (1916). The text reads "Our most precious jewel".
In The Dutch Golden Age of the 17th century, the Netherlands urbanised considerably, mostly financed by corporate revenue from the Asian trade monopolies.[citation needed] Social status was based on merchants' income, which reduced feudalism and considerably changed the dynamics of Dutch society.
When the Dutch Royal Family was established in 1815, much of its wealth came from Colonial trade.[121]
Universities such as the Royal Leiden University founded in the 16th century have developed into leading knowledge centres about Southeast Asian and Indonesian studies.[122] Leiden University has produced academics such as Colonial adviser Christiaan Snouck Hurgronje who specialised in native oriental (Indonesian) affairs, and it still has academics who specialise in Indonesian languages and cultures. Leiden University and in particular KITLV are educational and scientific institutions that to this day share both an intellectual and historical interest in Indonesian studies. Other scientific institutions in the Netherlands include the Amsterdam Tropenmuseum, an anthropological museum with massive collections of Indonesian art, culture, ethnography and anthropology.[59]
The traditions of the KNIL are maintained by the Regiment Van Heutsz of the modern Royal Netherlands Army and the dedicatedBronbeek Museum, a former home for retired KNIL soldiers, exists in Arnhem to this day.
File:Indisch tuinfeest op Arendsdorp Weeknummer 27-15 - Open Beelden - 16627.ogv
Dutch newsreel dated 1927 showing a Dutch East Indian fair in the Netherlands featuring Indoand Indigenous people from the Dutch East Indies performing traditional dance and music in traditional attire.[123]
Many surviving colonial families and their descendants who moved back to the Netherlands after Independence tended to look back on the colonial era with a sense of the power and prestige they had in the colony, with such items as the 1970s book Tempo Doeloe (Old times) by author Rob Nieuwenhuys, and other books and materials that became quite common in the 1970s and 1980s.[124] Moreover, since the 18th century Dutch literature has a large number of established authors, such as Louis Couperus, the writer of "The Hidden Force", taking the colonial era as an important source of inspiration.[125] In fact one of the great masterpieces of Dutch literature is the book "Max Havelaar" written by Multatuli in 1860.[126]
The majority of Dutchmen that repatriated to the Netherlands after and during the Indonesian revolution areIndo (Eurasian), native to the islands of the Dutch East Indies. This relatively large Eurasian population had developed over a period of 400 years and were classified by colonial law as belonging to the European legal community.[127] In Dutch they are referred to as 'Indische Nederlanders' (Indies Dutchmen) or Indo (short for Indo-European). Of the 296,200 so called Dutch 'repatriants' only 92,200 were expatriate Dutchmen born in the Netherlands.[128]
Including their 2nd generation descendants, they are currently the largest foreign born group in the Netherlands. In 2008, the Dutch Census Buro for Statistics (CBS)[129] registered 387,000 first and second generation Indos living in the Netherlands.[130] Although considered fully assimilated into Dutch society, as the main ethnic minority in the Netherlands, these 'Repatriants' have played a pivotal role in introducing elements of Indonesian culture into Dutch mainstream culture. Practically each town in the Netherlands will have a 'Toko' (Dutch Indonesian Shop) or Indonesian restaurant[131] and many 'Pasar Malam' (Night market in Malay/Indonesian) fairs are organised throughout the year.
Many Indonesian dishes and foodstuffs have become commonplace in the Netherlands. Rijsttafel, a colonial culinary concept, and dishes such as Nasi goreng and sateh are still very popular in the Netherlands.[112]

See also[edit]


  1. Jump up^ [1]
  2. Jump up^ Friend (1942), Vickers (2003), Ricklefs (1991), Reid (1974), Taylor (2003).
  3. Jump up^ Empires and Colonies.
  4. Jump up^ Booth, Anne, et al. Indonesian Economic History in the Dutch Colonial Era (1990), Ch 8
  5. Jump up^ R.B. Cribb and A. Kahin, p. 118
  6. Jump up^ Robert Elson, The idea of Indonesia: A history (2008) pp 1-12
  7. Jump up^ Dagh-register gehouden int Casteel Batavia vant passerende daer ter plaetse als over geheel Nederlandts-India anno 1624–1629."English: "The official register at Catle Bavaria, of the census of the Dutch East Indies VOC. 1624.
  8. Jump up^ Gouda, Frances. Dutch Culture Overseas: Colonial Practice in the Netherlands Indies, 1900-1942 (1996) online
  9. Jump up^ Taylor (2003)
  10. Jump up to:a b c Ricklefs (1991), p. 27
  11. Jump up to:a b Vickers (2005), p. 10
  12. Jump up^ Ricklefs (1991), p. 110; Vickers (2005), p. 10
  13. Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i j k l *Witton, Patrick (2003). Indonesia. Melbourne: Lonely Planet. pp. 23–25. ISBN 1-74059-154-2.
  14. Jump up^ Luc Nagtegaal, Riding the Dutch Tiger: The Dutch East Indies Company and the Northeast Coast of Java, 1680–1743 (1996)
  15. Jump up^ Schwarz, A. (1994). A Nation in Waiting: Indonesia in the 1990s. Westview Press. pp. 3–4. ISBN 1-86373-635-2.
  16. Jump up^ Kumar, Ann (1997). Java. Hong Kong: Periplus Editions. p. 44. ISBN 962-593-244-5.
  17. Jump up^ Ricklefs (1991), pp. 111–114
  18. Jump up to:a b c Ricklefs (1991), p. 131
  19. Jump up^ Vickers (2005), p. 10; Ricklefs (1991), p. 131
  20. Jump up^ Ricklefs (1991), p. 142
  21. Jump up to:a b c d e f g Friend (2003), p. 21
  22. Jump up^ Ricklefs (1991), pp. 138-139
  23. Jump up^ Vickers (2005), p. 13
  24. Jump up to:a b c Vickers (2005), p. 14
  25. Jump up to:a b c Reid (1974), p. 1.
  26. Jump up^ Jack Ford, "The Forlorn Ally—The Netherlands East Indies in 1942," War & Society(1993) 11#1 pp: 105-127.
  27. Jump up^ Herman Theodore Bussemaker, "Paradise in Peril: The Netherlands, Great Britain and the Defence of the Netherlands East Indies, 1940–41," Journal of Southeast Asian Studies(2000) 31#1 pp: 115-136.
  28. Jump up^ Morison (1948), p. 191
  29. Jump up^ Ricklefs (1991), p. 195
  30. Jump up^ L., Klemen, 1999–2000, The Netherlands East Indies 1941–42, "Forgotten Campaign: The Dutch East Indies Campaign 1941–1942".
  31. Jump up^ Shigeru Satō: War, nationalism, and peasants: Java under the Japanese occupation, 1942–1945 (1997), p. 43
  32. Jump up^ Japanese occupation of Indonesia
  33. Jump up^ Encyclopædia Britannica Online (2007). "Indonesia :: Japanese occupation". Retrieved21 January 2007Though initially welcomed as liberators, the Japanese gradually established themselves as harsh overlords. Their policies fluctuated according to the exigencies of the war, but in general their primary object was to make the Indies serve Japanese war needs.
  34. Jump up^ Gert Oostindie and Bert Paasman (1998). "Dutch Attitudes towards Colonial Empires, Indigenous Cultures, and Slaves"Eighteenth-Century Studies 31 (3): 349–355.doi:10.1353/ecs.1998.0021.Ricklefs, M.C. (1993). History of Modern Indonesia Since c.1300, second edition. London: MacMillan. ISBN 0-333-57689-6.
  35. Jump up^ Vickers (2005), page 85
  36. Jump up^ Ricklefs (1991), p. 199
  37. Jump up^ Cited in: Dower, John W. War Without Mercy: Race and Power in the Pacific War (1986; Pantheon; ISBN 0-394-75172-8)
  38. Jump up^ Dick, et al. (2002)
  39. Jump up^ Ricklefs (1991), p 119
  40. Jump up to:a b Taylor (2003), p. 240
  41. Jump up^ "Indonesia’s Infrastructure Problems: A Legacy From Dutch Colonialism"The Jakarta Globe.
  42. Jump up^ Dick, et al. (2002), p. 95
  43. Jump up^ Vickers (2005), p. 20
  44. Jump up^ Vickers (2005), p. 16
  45. Jump up^ Vickers (2005), p. 18
  46. Jump up^ Dick, et al. (2002), p. 97
  47. Jump up^ ten Horn-van Nispen, Marie-Louise; Ravesteijn, Wim (2009). "The road to an empire: Organisation and technology of road construction in the Dutch East Indies, 1800–1940".Journal of Transport History 10 (1): 40–57. doi:10.7227/TJTH.30.1.5.
  48. Jump up^ Ravesteijn, Wim (2007). "Between Globalization and Localization: The Case of Dutch Civil Engineering in Indonesia, 1800–1950". Comparative Technology Transfer and Society5 (1): 32–64 [quote p. 32]. doi:10.1353/ctt.2007.0017.
  49. Jump up^ Furnivall, J.S. (1967) [1939]. Netherlands India: a Study of Plural Economy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 9. ISBN 0-521-54262-6. Cited in Vicker, Adrian (2005). A History of Modern Indonesia. Cambridge University Press. p. 9. ISBN 0-521-54262-6.
  50. Jump up^ Beck, Sanderson, (2008) South Asia, 1800-1950 - World Peace Communications ISBN 0-9792532-3-3ISBN 978-0-9792532-3-2 - By 1930 more European women had arrived in the colony, and they made up 113,000 out of the 240,000 Europeans.
  51. Jump up^ Van Nimwegen, Nico De demografische geschiedenis van Indische Nederlanders, Report no.64 (Publisher: NIDI, The Hague, 2002) P.36 ISBN 9789070990923
  52. Jump up^ Van Nimwegen, Nico (2002). "64". De demografische geschiedenis van Indische Nederlanders [The demography of the Dutch in the East Indies] (PDF)The Hague: NIDI. p. 35. ISBN 9789070990923.
  53. Jump up^ Taylor (2003), p. 238
  54. Jump up^ Vickers (2005), p. 9
  55. Jump up^ Reid (1974), p. 170, 171
  56. Jump up^ Cornelis, Willem, Jan (2008). [[[:id:Vreemde Oosterlingen]] and [2] De Privaatrechterlijke Toestand: Der Vreemde Oosterlingen Op Java En Madoera ( Don't know how to translate this, the secret? private? hinterland. Java nd Madoera)Check |url=value (help) (PDF). Bibiliobazaar. ISBN 978-0-559-23498-9.
  57. Jump up to:a b c Taylor (2003), p. 286
  58. Jump up^ Taylor (2003), p. 287
  59. Jump up to:a b TU Delft Colonial influence remains strong in Indonesia
  60. Jump up^ Note: In 2010, according to University Ranking by Academic Performance (URAP),Universitas Indonesia was the best university in Indonesia.
  61. Jump up^ "URAP - University Ranking by Academic Performance".
  62. Jump up^ Vickers (2005), p. 15
  63. Jump up^ R.B. Cribb and A. Kahin, p. 108
  64. Jump up^ R.B. Cribb and A. Kahin, p. 140
  65. Jump up^ R.B. Cribb and A. Kahin, pp. 87, 295
  66. Jump up^ Harry J. Benda, S.L. van der Wal, "De Volksraad en de staatkundige ontwikkeling van Nederlandsch-Indië: The Peoples Council and the political development of the Netherlands-Indies." (With an introduction and survey of the documents in English). (Publisher: J.B. Wolters, Leiden, 1965.)
  67. Jump up^ Note: The European legal class was not solely based on race restrictions and included Dutch people, other Europeans, but also native Indo-Europeans, Indo-Chinese and indigenous people.
  68. Jump up to:a b "Virtueel Indi".
  69. Jump up^ Note: Adat law communities were formally established throughout the archipelago e.g.Minangkabau. See: Cribb, R.B., Kahin, p. 140
  70. Jump up^ http://alterisk.ru/lj/IndonesiaLegalOverview.pdf
  71. Jump up^ Note: The female 'Boeloe' prison in Semarang, which housed both European and indigenous women, had separate sleeping rooms with cots and mosquito nets for elite indigenous women and women in the European legal class. Sleeping on the floor like the female peasantry was considered an intolerable aggravation of the legal sanction. See: Baudet, H., Brugmans I.J. Balans van beleid. Terugblik op de laatste halve eeuw van Nederlands-Indië. (Publisher: Van Gorcum, Assen, 1984)
  72. Jump up^ Baudet, H., Brugmans I.J. Balans van beleid. Terugblik op de laatste halve eeuw van Nederlands-Indië. (Publisher: Van Gorcum, Assen, 1984) P.76, 121, 130
  73. Jump up^ Cribb, R.B., Kahin, pp. 140 & 405
  74. Jump up^ http://www.indonesianhistory.info/pages/chapter-4.html, sourced from Cribb, R. B (2010), Digital atlas of indonesian history, Nias, ISBN 978-87-91114-66-3 from the earlier volume Cribb, R. B; Nordic Institute of Asian Studies (2000), Historical atlas of Indonesia, Curzon ; Singapore : New Asian Library, ISBN 978-0-7007-0985-4
  75. Jump up^ Blakely, Allison (2001). Blacks in the Dutch World: The Evolution of Racial Imagery in a Modern Society. Indiana University Press. p. 15 ISBN 0-253-31191-8
  76. Jump up^ Cribb, R.B. (2004) ‘Historical dictionary of Indonesia.’ Scarecrow Press, Lanham, USA.ISBN 0 8108 4935 6, p. 221 [3]; [Note: The KNIL statistics of 1939 show at least 13,500 Javanese and Sundanese under arms compared to 4,000 Ambonese soldiers]. Source: Netherlands Ministry of Defense.
  77. Jump up^ Nicholas Tarling, ed. (1992). The Cambridge History of Southeast Asia: Volume 2, the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries. Cambridge U.P. p. 104. ISBN 9780521355063.
  78. Jump up^ Groen, Petra (2012). "Colonial warfare and military ethics in the Netherlands East Indies, 1816–1941". Journal of Genocide Research 14 (3): 277–296.doi:10.1080/14623528.2012.719365.
  79. Jump up^ Willems, Wim ‘Sporen van een Indisch verleden (1600-1942).’ (COMT, Leiden, 1994). Chapter I, P.32-33 ISBN 90-71042-44-8
  80. Jump up^ Willems, Wim ‘Sporen van een Indisch verleden (1600-1942).’ (COMT, Leiden, 1994). Chapter I, P.32-36 ISBN 90-71042-44-8
  81. Jump up^ John Sydenham Furnivall, Colonial Policy and Practice: A Comparative Study of Burma and Netherlands India (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1948), 236.
  82. Jump up^ Klemen, L (1999–2000). "Dutch East Indies 1941-1942". Dutch East Indies Campaign website.
  83. Jump up^ "Last Post – the End of Empire in the Far East", John Keay ISBN 0-7195-5589-2
  84. Jump up^ plechtigheden in Djakarta bij de opheffing van het KNIL Polygoon 1950 3 min. 20;embed=1 Video footage showing the official ceremony disbanding the KNIL
  85. Jump up^ John Keegan, page 314 "World Armies", ISBN 0-333-17236-1
  86. Jump up^ Taylor (2003), p. 288
  87. Jump up^ Sneddon, james (2003)The Indonesian language: its history and role in modern society.(UNSW Press, Sydney, 2003) P.87-89 [4]
  88. Jump up^ Taylor (2003), p. 289
  89. Jump up^ Groeneboer, Kees. Weg tot het Westen (Road to the West).Corn, Charles; Glasserman, Debbie (1999). The Scents of Eden: A History of the Spice Trade.Kodansha America. p. 203. ISBN 1-56836-249-8.
  90. Jump up^ Meijer, Hans (2004) In Indie geworteld. Publisher: Bert bakker. ISBN 90-351-2617-3. P.33, 35, 36, 76, 77, 371, 389 [5]
  91. Jump up^ Groeneboer, K (1993) Weg tot het westen. Het Nederlands voor Indie 1600–1950. Publisher: KITLEV, Leiden.[6]
  92. Jump up^ Maier, H.M.J. "A Hidden Language – Dutch in Indonesia". Institute of European Studies, University of California. Retrieved 16 August 2010.
  93. Jump up^ Nieuwenhuys (1999) pp. 126, 191, 225.
  94. Jump up^ Note: In December 1958 American Time magazine praised the translation of Maria Dermoût's The Ten Thousand Things, and named it one of the best books of the year, among several (other) iconic literary works of 1958: 'Breakfast at Tiffany´s' by Truman Capote, 'Doctor Zhivago' by Pasternak and 'Lolita' by Nabokov. See: Official Maria Dermout Website.
  95. Jump up^ 'International Conference on Colonial and Post-Colonial Connections in Dutch Literature.' University of California, Berkeley, Website, 2011. Retrieved: 24 September 2011
  96. Jump up^ Nieuwenhuys, Rob. ‘Oost-Indische spiegel. Wat Nederlandse schrijvers en dichters over Indonesië hebben geschreven vanaf de eerste jaren der Compagnie tot op heden.’, (Publisher: Querido, Amsterdam, 1978) p.555 [7]
  97. Jump up^ "Error".
  98. Jump up^ Biran 2009, p. 27.
  99. Jump up^ Biran 2009, p. 35.
  100. Jump up^ Biran 2009, p. 54.
  101. Jump up^ Biran 2009, pp. 61, 68.
  102. Jump up^ Biran 2009, p. 145.
  103. Jump up^ Biran 2009, pp. 319, 332.
  104. Jump up^ Biran 2009, pp. 334, 340.
  105. Jump up^ Biran 2009, pp. 367–370.
  106. Jump up^ Kahin 1952, p. 445.
  107. Jump up^ Heider (1991), p. 15
  108. Jump up^ Prayogo 2009, p. 14.
  109. Jump up^ Heider (1991), p. 14
  110. Jump up^ Biran 2009, p. 351.
  111. Jump up^ Geotravel Research Center. "The rise and fall of Indonesia's rice table".
  112. Jump up to:a b Karin Engelbrecht. "Dutch Food Influences - History of Dutch Food - Culinary Influences on the Dutch Kitchen"About.
  113. Jump up^ Schoppert (1997), pp. 38–39
  114. Jump up to:a b Dawson, B., Gillow, J., The Traditional Architecture of Indonesia, p. 8, 1994 Thames and Hudson Ltd, London, ISBN 0-500-34132-X
  115. Jump up^ W. Wangsadinata and T.K. Djajasudarma (1995). "Architectural Design Consideration for Modern Buildings in Indonesia" (PDF)INDOBEX Conf. on Building Construction Technology for the Future: Construction Technology for Highrises & Intelligence Buildings. Jakarta. Retrieved 18 January 2007.
  116. Jump up to:a b Schoppert (1997), pp. 72–77
  117. Jump up^ Schoppert (1997), pp. 104–105
  118. Jump up^ Schoppert (1997), pp. 102–105
  119. Jump up^ VIckers (2005), p. 24
  120. Jump up^ Schoppert (1997), p. 105
  121. Jump up^ To this day the Dutch Royal family is in fact the wealthiest family of the Netherlands, one of the foundations of its wealth was the colonial trade."In Pictures: The World's Richest Royals". Forbes.com. 30 August 2007. Retrieved 5 March 2010.
  122. Jump up^ Some of the university faculties still include: Indonesian Languages and Cultures; Southeast Asia and Oceania Languages and Cultures; Cultural Anthropology
  123. Jump up^ Note: 1927 garden party, at the country estate Arendsdorp on the Wassenaarse wegnear The Hague, for the benefit of the victims of the storm disaster of 2 June 1927 in the Netherlands. The market is opened by the minister of Colonies dr. J.C. Koningsberger.
  124. Jump up^ Nieuwenhuys, Robert, (1973) Tempo doeloe : fotografische documenten uit het oude Indie, 1870–1914 [door] E. Breton de Nijs (pseud. of Robert Nieuwenhuys) Amsterdam : Querido, ISBN 90-214-1103-2 – noting that the era wasn't fixed by any dates – noting the use of Tio, Tek Hong,(2006) Keadaan Jakarta tempo doeloe : sebuah kenangan 1882–1959 Depok : Masup Jakarta ISBN 979-25-7291-0
  125. Jump up^ Nieuwenhuys (1999)
  126. Jump up^ Etty, Elsbeth literary editor for the NRC handelsblad "Novels: Coming to terms with Calvinism, colonies and the war." (NRC Handelsblad. July 1998) [8]
  127. Jump up^ Bosma U., Raben R. Being "Dutch" in the Indies: a history of creolisation and empire, 1500–1920 (University of Michigan, NUS Press, 2008), ISBN 9971-69-373-9 [9]
  128. Jump up^ Willems, Wim, ’De uittocht uit Indie 1945–1995’ (Publisher: Bert Bakker, Amsterdam, 2001) pp.12–13 ISBN 90-351-2361-1
  129. Jump up^ Official CBS website containing all Dutch demographic statistics.
  130. Jump up^ De Vries, Marlene. Indisch is een gevoel, de tweede en derde generatie Indische Nederlanders. (Amsterdam University Press, 2009) ISBN 978-90-8964-125-0 [10] [11]P.369
  131. Jump up^ Startpagina B.V. "Indisch-eten Startpagina, verzameling van interessante links".


  • Biran, Misbach Yusa (2009). Sejarah Film 1900–1950: Bikin Film di Jawa [History of Film 1900–1950: Making Films in Java] (in Indonesian). Jakarta: Komunitas Bamboo working with the Jakarta Art Council. ISBN 978-979-3731-58-2.
  • Cribb, R.B., Kahin, A. Historical dictionary of Indonesia (Scarecrow Press, 2004)
  • Dick, Howard, et al. The Emergence of a National Economy: An Economic History of Indonesia, 1800-2000 (U. of Hawaii Press, 2002) online edition
  • Friend, T. (2003). Indonesian Destinies. Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-01137-6.
  • Heider, Karl G (1991). Indonesian Cinema: National Culture on Screen. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-1367-3.
  • Reid, Anthony (1974). The Indonesian National Revolution 1945–1950. Melbourne: Longman Pty Ltd. ISBN 0-582-71046-4.
  • Nieuwenhuys, Rob Mirror of the Indies: A History of Dutch Colonial Literature - translated from Dutch by E. M. Beekman (Publisher: Periplus, 1999) Google Books
  • Prayogo, Wisnu Agung (2009). "Sekilas Perkembangan Perfilman di Indonesia" [An Overview of the Development of Film in Indonesia]. Kebijakan Pemerintahan Orde Baru Terhadap Perfilman Indonesia Tahun 1966–1980 [New Order Policy Towards Indonesian Films (1966–1980)] (Bachelour's of History Thesis) (in Indonesian). University of Indonesia.
  • Ricklefs, M.C. (1991). A Modern History of Indonesia, 2nd edition. MacMillan. chapters 10–15. ISBN 0-333-57690-X.
  • Taylor, Jean Gelman (2003). Indonesia: Peoples and Histories. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-10518-5.
  • Vickers, Adrian (2005). A History of Modern Indonesia. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-54262-6.

Further reading[edit]

  • Booth, Anne, et al. Indonesian Economic History in the Dutch Colonial Era (1990)
  • Bosma U., Raben R. Being "Dutch" in the Indies: a history of creolisation and empire, 1500–1920 (University of Michigan, NUS Press, 2008), ISBN 9971-69-373-9 [12]
  • Bosma, Ulbe. Emigration: Colonial circuits between Europe and Asia in the 19th and early 20th centuryEuropean History Online, Mainz: Institute of European History, 2011, retrieved: 23 May 2011.
  • Colombijn, Freek, and Thomas Lindblad, eds. Roots of violence in Indonesia: Contemporary violence in historical perspective (Leiden: KITLV Press, 2002)
  • Dick, Howard, et al. The Emergence of a National Economy: An Economic History of Indonesia, 1800-2000 (U. of Hawaii Press, 2002) online edition
  • Elson, Robert. The idea of Indonesia: A history (Cambridge University Press, 2008)
  • Braudel, FernandThe perspective of the World, vol III in Civilization and Capitalism, 1984
  • Furnivall, J. S. (1944). Netherlands India: A Study of Plural Economy. Cambridge U.P. p. viii. ISBN 9781108011273., comprehensive coverage
  • Gouda, Frances. Dutch Culture Overseas: Colonial Practice in the Netherlands Indies, 1900-1942 (1996) online
  • Nagtegaal, Luc. Riding the Dutch Tiger: The Dutch East Indies Company and the Northeast Coast of Java, 1680–1743 (1996) 250pp
  • Robins, Nick. The Corporation that Changed the World: How the East India Company Shaped the Modern Multinational (2006) excerpt and text search
  • Taylor, Jean Gelman. The Social World of Batavia: Europeans and Eurasians in Colonial Indonesia (1983)
  • Lindblad, J. Thomas (1989). "The Petroleum Industry in Indonesia before the Second World War". Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies 25 (2): 53–77.

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