Senin, 26 Mei 2008

Proposal

INCREASING STUDENTS' VOCABULARIES THROUGH SINGING THE SONGS

A Study at the First Year Students at Madrasah Tsanawiyah (MTs) Pancasila of Pondok Pesantren Pancasila Bengkulu

THESIS PROPOSAL

HENDRI FIRMANSYAH

NIM: 204 323 2702

ENGLISH EDUCATION STUDY PROGRAM

DEPARTMENT TARBIYAH

SEKOLAH TINGGI AGAMA ISLAM NEGERI

(STAIN) BENGKULU

2008

CONTENTS

COVER ........................................................................................................................ i

HALAMAN PENGESAHAN .................................................................................... ii

ACNOWLEDGEMENT ........................................................................................... iii

CONTENTS ............................................................................................................... iv

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

A. Background ............................................................................ 1

B. Limitation of Research ......................................................... 4 C. Research Question 4

D. Purpose of Research ............................................................. 4

F. Significances .......................................................................... 5

CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW

A. Definitions of Vocabulary..................................................... 6

B. The Important of Vocabulary................................................. 6

C. Teaching and Learning Vocabulary ...................................... 7

D. Increasing Students' Vocabularies Trough Singing the

Songs ..................................................................................... 8

E. Previous Studies ........................................................... 9

CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

A. Research Design................................................................... 10

B. Populations and Sample ...................................................... 11

C. Technique of Collecting Data ............................................ 11

D. Instrument ............................................................................ 11

E. Data Analysis Procedures ................................................... 12

F. Teaching Procedures ........................................................... 13

REFERENCES ............................................................................................. 15

HALAMAN PENGESAHAN

Yang bertanda tangan di bawah ini, Penyeminar I (Satu) dan Penyeminar II (dua) proposal penelitian dalam membuat thesis skripsi di Jurusan Tarbiyah Program Studi Tadris Bahasa Inggris (TBI) Sekolah Tinggi Agama Islam Negeri (STAIN) Bengkulu, dengan ini menjelaskan bahwa proposal skripsi yang berjudul "INNCREASING STUDENTS' VOCABULARIES THGROUGH SINGING THE SONGS" (A Study at the First Students at Madrasah Tsanawiyah (MTs) Pancasila of Pondok Pesantren Pancasila Bengkulu),

Yang diajukan oleh:

Nama : Hendri Firmansyah

NIM : 204 323 2703

Telah disetujui / ACC.

Penyeminar I

Syamsul Rizal, M.Pd

NIP.150293381

Bengkulu, 12 Mei 2008

Penyeminar II

Nadrah, M,Pd

NIP.150368883

Mengetahui,

Ka. Prodi. Tadris Bahasa Inggris

Syamsul Rizal, M.Pd

NIP.150293381

ACNOWLEDGEMENT

Praise to Allah the Almighty for giving me healthy, opportunity, and ability to complete this Thesis Proposal. Peace and Salutation to our beloved prophet Muhammad Saw who has brought us from the darkness and the lightness.

The proposal is an experimental research that attempt to increase students' vocabulary trough singing the songs at the first year students of MTs Pancasila of Pondok Pesantren Pancasila Bengkulu.

Special thanks thank to my beloved parents, family and friends, because they were given me support and help me in completing this proposal. I realize that this proposal is imperfect, therefore critics and suggestions are really needed to make this proposal became better in the future.

Bengkulu, February 2008

The Author CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

A. Background

English is an international language and it is used all over the world. In Indonesia, English as a foreign language and it is a compulsory subject in the curriculum. It has been taught at school as one of the main subject from Elementary School until University. Nowadays it is also taught in the Kids Class. This effort is the way to improve English ability in order to develop English as a second language.

The most important thing in learning language especially English is learning vocabulary. Without vocabulary we can not speak, write, and understand what we are reading and listening. Mastering vocabulary is a basic matter in learning a foreign language. David Wilkins (Thornbury, 2002) summed up that without grammar very little can be conveyed, without vocabulary nothing can be conveyed. Dellar H and Hocking (Thornbury, 2002) also stated "if you spend most of your time studying grammar, your English will not improve very much. You will see most improvement if you learn more words and expressions. You can say very little with grammar, but you can say almost anything with words!" We realize that how importance of vocabulary learning, but it does not mean that the other components are to be ignored such as phonology, grammar, cultured, etc.

Even though the students have mastered English vocabulary well, it does not guarantee for them to use English language perfectly, because their vocabularies are just the basic for learning English. (Hermina, 2000)

According to "Departemen Pendidikan Nasional" (2000), at the end of the first year students of SLTP are hoped to have at least 500 words to support their reading, listening, writing, and speaking. But to master vocabulary is not easy because vocabulary is one major problem for English as a foreign language. Based on my field observation, students still have difficulties to recall or remember the vocabularies that have been learned.

There are several factors that may caused the students difficulties in recalling the vocabularies well. They are; 1.) School Environment. Madrasah Tsanawiyah (MTs) Pancasila is one of education institutions at Pondok Pesantren Pancasila Bengkulu under shelter Yayasan Semarak Bengkulu. There were two curriculums: Common Education (as SLTP, MTs, SMA, and MA) and special education that focus on Islamic Educations (as MDU, MDW) Most of the students of MTs Pancasila were obligated to live in boarding/hostel. At the hostel they also crowded by many activities and assignments, so they have no enough time to focus in increasing their vocabularies. 2.) Students' background knowledge. The students at Pesantren are from villager commonly, we have known that the education at a village do not more perfect than the education at a city/town, because less of references or books as sources for learning and teaching process being perfectly. At the village, there are only several of Elementary School that offered English as a main subject to be learned. So when they came in Secondary School/Junior High School, they will get difficulties in learning English moreover that choose a school at a city as MTs Pancasila Bengkulu.

Based on the fact above, it is necessary for teachers to find out and apply an efficient and effective technique which can make easily and rapidly to understand the meaning of word that they have ever heard, read, or known.

Teaching trough singing the songs is one technique that can be used in teaching English to increase student's vocabularies, because the songs can improve students' interest and motivation. In teaching vocabulary, we have to use an extra language practice trough educationally sound activities such songs and it make the learning English a joyful activity, to develop a positive attitude to language learning (Palim, 1990). Songs are a good resource for English Teaching because they are funny, promote mimics, gestures, etc. associated to the meaning (www.topenglish.com, 2003)..

Commonly, the youngsters are like and interest the songs because they can express what they were felt. We have known that the essential part of vocabulary learning is repetition, the students repeat a word/utterance aloud as soon as he/she heard it (Thornbury, 54). Nation (Cameron, 2001) suggested that a new word needs to be met at least five or six times in a text book unit before it has any change of being learnt. So, if the songs are repeated many times it will help students in memorizing words.

B. Limitation of Research

I limit this research in the using of the songs on the first year of MTs Pancasila of Pondok Pesantren Pancasila specially focus on class 7B as experimental class, there are 18 Students.

C. Research Question

- Does students' vocabulary increase through singing the songs?

- Is teaching vocabulary through singing the songs effective in increasing students' vocabulary?

D. Purpose of Research

- Give spirits to the students that English is not a terrible lesson to learn.

- Explain to the students that we can learn English with enjoy way such as learning English trough singing the songs.

- In order the students master in vocabulary as a basic learning English.

E. Significance

- Teacher : Teacher can know how effective trough singing the song in increasing students' vocabulary and motivated the students to study English well.

- Institution : Give solution in order learning run well such as prepared the media that help teaching and learning process. The media were needed may as sound system, tape, CD player, cassette collection, TV, language laboratory, etc.

- Student : The students study the words in the songs.

CHAPTER II

LITERATURE REVIEW

A. Definition of Vocabulary

According to Manser (1995: 461), Vocabulary is the total number of words in a language. While Morales (2004-2005) stated that vocabulary is a listing of the words used in some enterprise. Furthermore, Ur in Hidayati (2007: 7) stated that vocabularies are the words that are taught in the foreign language. From the opinions above, we can conclude that vocabulary is a listing of all words that are taught in the foreign language.

B. The Important of Vocabulary

The most important thing in learning language especially English is learning vocabulary. Without vocabulary we can not speak, write, and understand what we are reading and listening. Mastering vocabulary is a basic matter in learning foreign language. David Wilkins (Thornbury, 2002: 13) summed up that without grammar very little can be conveyed, without vocabulary nothing can be conveyed. Dellar H and Hocking (Thornbury, 2002: 13) also stated "if you spend most of your time studying grammar, your English will not improve very much. You will see most improvement if you learn more words and expressions. You can say very little with grammar, but you can say almost anything with words!"

From the statements above, we have known that mastering vocabulary is more important than other because it is the first step in learning foreign language. Mastering vocabulary is a basic matter in learning foreign language.

C. Teaching and Learning Vocabulary

In preparing the materials that will be taught to the students, first of all we have to know the learners, because if we have known who the learners are, we can choose appropriate materials that suitable to the level of learners (whether beginners, intermediate, or advanced).

Second, we must have more techniques in teaching and learning vocabulary. It is needed in order the teacher and learners do not bore and make easily in teaching and learning process.

An important in learning vocabulary is memorizing a large of vocabularies. According to "Departemen Pendidikan Nasional" (2000: 174), at the end of the first year students of SLTP are hoped to have at least 500 words to support their reading, listening, writing, and speaking. Thornbury (2002: 23) stated that the learner needs not only to learn a lot of words, but to remember them. In fact, learning is remembering. To keep our memorizing of words, we must repeat and recycle the vocabularies that have been memorized. The words stand a good change of being remembered if they have been met at least seven times over space interval. Thornbury (2002: 24), the time-honoured way of 'memorizing' new material is trough repeated rehearsal of the material whole it is still in working memory.

D. Increasing Students Vocabulary Trough Singing the Songs

According to Morales (2004-2005), Sing is to make melodious sound, and song is a short musical composition with words. Manser (1980: 385) stated that, sing is making musical sounds with the voice, and song (1980: 395) is a poem set to music, intended to be sung.

According to Tirtibisono (1996), sing a song is a unique way to learning English fast. We have known that the most of people specially the young men like song. Trough songs they can express their sadness, happiness, fun, sorrow, and pray or pea for the God. Songs have been involved in our life, culture, night and day. Lo and Li (Schoepp: 2001) stated that learning English through songs develops a non-threatening classroom atmosphere in which the four language skills can be enhanced. According to Gatbonton and Segalowitz (Schoepp: 2001), using songs can help automatize the language development process, the automatization would occur through repetitive exercises in a non-communicative environment.

Many kinds of songs that can be heard such as pop, jazz, country, hip hop, rock, and roll. The songs give us more than enough easiest way choose news which we spend our interest to increase our knowledge. We can enjoy the foreign songs especially English. Not only language can be learned from foreign songs but also culture. We can start it with an easy song that we like most, like "The Alphabets Song" or any other song that we like much. Then try to translate and find the idea, because its helps us to memorize the words that written in the songs.

Teaching trough singing the songs is one technique that can be used in teaching English to increase student's vocabularies, because the song can improve students' interest and motivation. In teaching vocabulary we have to use an extra language practice trough educationally sound activities such songs and its make the learning English a joyful activity, to develop a positive attitude to language learning (Palim, 1990).

E. Previous Studies

There are some studies related to increase students' vocabularies through singing the songs. Firstly, a research done by Hermina entitled "Teaching Vocabulary Through Songs", where the result of her study are teaching English trough song is effective way in teaching vocabulary. Second, an article entitles "Using Songs In The English Classroom" which said that through songs to promote comprehension.

From the previous studies it can be concluded that songs can help us in learning English, and it also necessary to find out how effective in increasing students' vocabulary through singing the songs and to know that students' vocabularies increase or not.

CHAPTER III

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

A. Research Design

This research is an experimental research that involved two groups. Both of groups will be given pre-test and post-test. The pre-test will be given before treatment. The students' pre-test score is to see the starting point and to determine whether the two groups could be accepted as sample or not in this research. Subject will be assigned to the experimental and the control group will be given a pre- test on the independent variable. The research will be held for five meeting. After the treatment, the two groups will be given post-test. Post-test will be compared with pre-test to see the effect songs to the students in mastering vocabulary.

The designed can be diagramed as follow:

Groups

Pre-Test

Treatment

Post-Test

E

Y1

X

Y2

C

Y1

-

Y2

(Ari in Hermina, 2000)

Explanation:

E = Experimental group

C = Control group

Y1 = Pre-test for experimental group

X = The treatment by using songs

- = Non treatment

Y2 = Post-test for experimental and control group

B. Population and Sample

The population on this research is the first year students of Madrasah Tsanawiyah (MTs) Pancasila of Pondok Pesantren Pancasila Bengkulu which consist of two classes 7A and 7B. The sample is Class 7A. 7B is an experimental group, there are 18 Students and 7A is a control class, there are 21 students.

C. Technique of Collecting Data

The experimental and control group will be given a vocabulary test. Pre-test will be given to two groups to see the starting points of the two groups. After giving the treatment, the post-test will be given to the both groups. The scores of test that have given are as a data in this research.

D. Instrument

The instrument which will be use to collect the data in this research is multiple choice forms. According to Harris (Hermina, 2000), multiple choice form items tent to have superior reliability as the most useful of all objective types, since it could be simply administered. Based on the opinion above, the multiple choice type is chosen for research instrument. Heaton (1975) stated that multiple choice items can provide a useful means of teaching and testing in various learning situations particularly at the lower levels. So, after the treatment is given for five meeting, the students will be given post-test as achievement test. In order to get a better test, the instrument test will be tried out to students in other group from the same population.

E. Data Analysis Procedure

The procedure of data analysis is using t-test, which was proposed by Best (Hermina, 2000). The t-test is used to calculate and analyze the data to find the score of the students of the experimental and control class and to test the technique in teaching vocabulary trough singing the songs is more effective1 or not and to test whether students' vocabulary increase or not through singing the songs technique.

The Formula:

Keterangan:

= Koefisien benda rata-rata 2 sampel

= Rata-rata skor pada sampel

= Rata-rata skor pada sampel 2

= Banyaknya anggota sampel 1

= Banyaknya anggota sampel 2

= db (dejarat bebas)

S1 = Standar deviasi sampel 1

S12 = Varians sampel 1

S2 = Standar deviasi sampel 2

S22 = Varians sampel 2

To find out the the value of t-table, the degree of freedom for the formula is n1+n2-2. To discover the difference between means of sample 1 and 2. t-count is compared with t-table.

F. Teaching Procedures

The materials which are used in the experimental class are the same with the material in control group. The materials are taken from "Baby Songs Animals" (Video CD Digital Sound, 2006). However the techniques are used in both groups through explanation.

The steps of teaching vocabulary with songs are follows:

1. The students listen to the songs three times.

2. The students sing the songs by themselves. First with guidance of the teacher, and second without guidance from the teacher.

3. Teacher explain the structure of sentences

4. Teacher gives some questions on vocabulary which have been sung and taught.

5. The students make notes of the new words from the songs that they like.

The steps in the control class are standard teaching used by regular teacher in teaching vocabulary by explanation as follow:

1. Teacher presents some materials which contain the same vocabulary as the songs that have been given in the experimental class.

2. Teacher explains the structure of sentences.

3. Students read material.

4. Teacher translates some words into Bahasa Indonesia.

5. Teacher reviews materials by asking many questions

REFERENCES

Cameron, Lynne. 2001. Teaching Languages to Young Learners. Cambridge Language Teaching Library. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Departemen Pendidikan Nasional. 2000. Penyempurnaan/Penyesuaian Kurikulum 1994 SLTP (Suplemen GBPP) Mata Pelajaran Bahasa Inggris. Jakarta.

Video CD Digital Sound. 2006. Baby Songs Animals. Emperor Edutainment. Website: http://www.videounggul.com. Email: info@videounggul.com

Heaton, J.B. 1975. Writing English Language Tests. New York: Longman.

Hermina. 2000. Teaching Vocabulary Trough Songs. Unpublished Thesis of FKIP Bengkulu University.

Hidayati, Suci. 2007. The Analysis of Students' Ability in Using Derivation Vocabulary. Unpublished Thesis Proposal. Tadris Bahasa Inggris of Tarbiyah Department of STAIN Bengkulu.

Manser, H. Martin. 1983. Oxford Learner's Pocket Dictionary. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Morales, Frank and Leah Gilner. 2003-2005. The Sage's English Dictionary and Thesaurus. Princeton University.

Palim, John and Paul Power. 1990. Jamboree Communication Activities for Children. Hong Kong: Nelson.

Richards, Jack. C and Theodore S. Rodgers. Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching a Description and Analysis. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Schoepp, Kevin. 2001. Reason For Using Songs In The ESL/EFL Classroom. Sabanci University, Istanbul, Turkey. The Internet TESL Journal. Vol. VII No. 2 http://iteslj.org/

Thornbury, Scott. 2002. How to Teach Vocabulary. Series Editor: Jeremy Harmer. Malaysia: Longman.

Tirtobisono, Yan. 1996. Practical English Conversation. Surabaya: Arkola.

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